AMPHIPOLS: Applications

Application 5: structural techniques
Type of application Rationale Observations Amphipols used References
Usual conditions for solution NMR of MPs are aggressive (high detergent concentrations, high temperature). APols may permit to study MPs that do not stand them. A8-35 and SAPols are easier to deuteriate than most detergents.
Solution NMR is a rapidly developing application. Stabilization by APols facilitates working for extended periods at relatively high temperature. Solid-state NMR remains to be validated. A8-35, DAPol, NAPols, SAPols Bazzacco et al. (2012), Catoire et al. (2009, 2010a, b, 2011), Dahmane et al. (2011), Elter et al. (2014), Etzkorn et al. (2013,2014), Feinstein et al. (2014), Planchard et al. (2014) Raschle et al. (2010), Renault (2008), Tifrea et al. (2014), Warschawski et al. (2011), Zoonens et al. (2005)
Electron microscopy APols ought to be particularly useful to study MPs and MP supercomplexes that are either easily disrupted or prone to conformational changes. A particularly promising application. STEM has been validated. AFM and SMFS are certainly doable but remain to be validated. A8-35 Althoff et al. (2011), Arunmanee et al. (2014), Cao et al. (2013), Cvetkov et al. (2011), Flötenmeyer et al. (2007), Gohon et al. (2008), Henderson (2013), Huynh et al. (2014), Kevany et al. (2013), Liao et al. (2013, 2014), Sverzhinsky et al. (2014), Tribet et al. (1998), Tsybovsky et al. (2013), Vahedi-Faridi et al. (2013)
X-ray crystallography Stabilizing MPs under crystallization conditions. Chemical structure of A8-35 far from ideal (charges). NAPols untested yet. A8-35 has been used to transfer BR to a lipidic mesophase, where it forms highly ordered crystals. A8-35, SAPols Charvolin et al. (2014), Polovinkin et al. (2014b), Popot et al. (2011)