AMPHIPOLS: Applications

Application 2: membrane protein production
Type of application Rationale Observations Amphipols used References
Folding and refolding The mildness of APols, along with other factors, seems to make them an excellent environment in which to fold or refold denatured MPs, such as those produced as inclusion bodies. To date applied to four outer MPs, BR, and six GPCRs. A8-35, SAPols, NAPols, PMAL Banères et al. (2011), Bazzacco et al. (2012), Catoire et al. (2010a), Dahmane et al. (2009, 2011,2013), Damian et al. (2012), Elter et al. (2014), Etzkorn et al. (2013), Gohon et al. (2011), Leney et al. (2012), Mary et al. (2014), Pocanschi et al. (2006, 2013), Popot & Kleinschmidt (2014)
Cell-free expression Letting MPs synthesized in vitro fold in a mild environment. Validated to date for NAPols. A8-35 and SAPols block in vitro expression of MPs, presumably as a consequence of binding to hydrophobic segments as they exit the ribosome tunnel. NVoy also seems to be a favorable medium. NAPols, NVoy Bazzacco et al. (2012), Guild et al. (2011), Klammt et al. (2011), Park et al. (2011), Shadiac et al. (2013)