1.2- Different modes of electron and proton fluxes across the thylakoid membranes

Here, we investigate the importance of the linear, cyclic and pseudo-cyclic (water-to-water cycles) electron transfer flows in the regulation of the ATP-to-NADPH ratio. This issue is obviously strongly connected with the theme 1.1 since those processes modulate the ΔpH across the thylakoid and the NADPH or PQ redox states, which are regulators of the qE and qT. The optimization of the ATP/NADPH also plays a role in the interaction of the light phase of photosynthesis with the cell metabolism (theme 1.3)